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Food Inspiration Magazine is the online magazine for foodservice professionals in search of inspiration and innovation. With the magazine we collect, enrich and spread inspiration. The free subscription magazine is published eight times per year and is an abundant source of inspiration for food and hospitality professionals. Our readers can be found in the U.S., Northern Europe, Latin America and Asia.

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CIRCULAR
ECONOMY

A circular economy is a systemic approach to economic activity designed to benefit businesses, society, and the environment. It is about moving away from consumption, towards reuse. The model looks something like this. (Hover to interact)

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Bakx, M. and Beurskens, P. (2015). Built-to-rebuild. Master of Science in Architecture, Building and Planning - Building Technology - Product Development. Eindhoven University of Technology.

CPA (2016). The Future for Construction Product Manufacturing Digitalisation, Industry 4.0 and the Circular Economy. [online] London: Construction Products Association, p.33. Available at: http://www.thefis.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/cpa-future-of-construction-product-manufacturing-report-2016.pdf [Accessed 9 Aug. 2017].

Ellen MacArthur Foundation (2013). Towards the Circular Economy. Economic and business rationale for an accelerated transition. [online] Ellen MacArthur Foundation. Available at: https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/assets/downloads/publications/Ellen-MacArthur-Foundation-Towards-the-Circular-Economy-vol.1.pdf [Accessed 9 Aug. 2017].

Ellen MacArthur Foundation (2017). ACHIEVING ‘GROWTH WITHIN’. [online] Ellen MacArthur Foundation. Available at: https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/assets/downloads/publications/Achieving-Growth-Within-20-01-17.pdf [Accessed 9 Aug. 2017].

Ellen MacArthur Foundation (2017). Circular Economy System Diagram. [online] Ellenmacarthurfoundation.org. Available at: https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/interactive-diagram [Accessed 8 Aug. 2017].

EU Environment (2015). Circular Economy… it’s the way forward. [video] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lK00v_tzkCI [Accessed 8 Aug. 2017].

European Biogas Action (2017). Circular Economy – a healthy transition driven also by Biogas – Biogas Action. [online] Biogasaction.eu. Available at: http://biogasaction.eu/circular-economy-a-healthy-transition-driven-also-by-biogas/ [Accessed 9 Aug. 2017].

FAO, IFAD and WFP. 2015. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2015. Meeting the 2015 international hunger targets: taking stock of uneven progress. Rome, FAO Available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/U3550t/u3550t02.htm [Accessed 9 Aug. 2017].

Foundry-planet (2016). How the automotive industry is uniquely placed to embrace the circular economy. [online] foundry-planet.com - B2B Portal. Available at: https://www.foundry-planet.com/es/equipo/detail-view/15689/?cHash=0ac630c123fb5a11307de77d013d120b [Accessed 9 Aug. 2017].

Merriam-webster (2017). Definition of BIOSPHERE. [online] Merriam-webster.com. Available at: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/biosphere [Accessed 8 Aug. 2017].

National Geographic (2017). Non-renewable energy. [online] National Geographic Society. Available at: https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/non-renewable-energy/ [Accessed 8 Aug. 2017].

Natural Capital Forum (2017). What is natural capital?. [online] Naturalcapitalforum.com. Available at: http://naturalcapitalforum.com/about/ [Accessed 8 Aug. 2017].

OECD (2008). MEASURING MATERIAL FLOWS AND RESOURCE PRODUCTIVITY. [online] p.21. Available at: https://www.oecd.org/env/indicators-modelling-outlooks/MFA-Synthesis.pdf [Accessed 8 Aug. 2017].

Renergy (2017). Anaerobic Digestion vs. Composting - Renergy. [online] Renergy. Available at: http://renergy.com/anaerobic-digestion-vs-composting/ [Accessed 9 Aug. 2017].

Sárvári Horváth, I., Tabatabaei, M., Karimi, K. and Kumar, R. (2016). Recent updates on biogas production - a review. Biofuel Research Journal, 3(2), pp.394-402.

Testard-Vaillant, P. (2006). Preserving Renewable Resources. CNRS international magazine, [online] (3). Available at: http://www2.cnrs.fr/en/606.htm [Accessed 8 Aug. 2017].

University of Florida (2017). What is Biogas?. [online] Biogas.ifas.ufl.edu. Available at: http://biogas.ifas.ufl.edu/biogasdefs.asp [Accessed 9 Aug. 2017].

US Department of Energy (2013). Biochemical Conversion: Using Enzymes, Microbes, and Catalysts to Make Fuels and Chemicals. [online] Available at: http://www.qibebt.cas.cn/xscbw/yjbg/201310/P020131024576058186806.pdf [Accessed 9 Aug. 2017].

Ward, S., Holden, N., White, E. and Oldfield, T. (2016). The ‘circular economy’ applied to the agriculture (livestock production) sector – discussion paper. [online] Brussels, Belgium: AgroCycle Hub, Harper Adams University, UK. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/newsroom/image/document/2016-48/ward_-_circular_economy_applied_to_the_livestock_production_sector___brussels__2_40231.pdf [Accessed 8 Aug. 2017].

CE100 Member (2017). bio-bean Ltd. [online] Ellenmacarthurfoundation.org. Available at: https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/ce100/directory/bio-bean-ltd [Accessed 10 Aug. 2017].

Eartheasy (2017). Shade Grown Coffee: Organic, Fair trade, Bird Friendly Coffees - Eartheasy.com Solutions for Sustainable Living. [online] Eartheasy.com. Available at: https://eartheasy.com/eat_shadegrown_coffee.htm [Accessed 10 Aug. 2017].

Ferreira, J. (2017). Coffee and the circular economy. [online] cafespaces. Available at: https://cafespaces.wordpress.com/2017/02/08/coffee-and-the-circular-economy/ [Accessed 10 Aug. 2017].

Festa, J. (2015). Discover Coffee Fruit, Nature’s Wasted Superfood. [online] pastemagazine.com. Available at: https://www.pastemagazine.com/articles/2015/06/coffee-fruit-natures-wasted-superfood.html [Accessed 10 Aug. 2017].

Fooddrinkeurope (2017). Food and drink manufacturers are working together with suppliers. [online] Circulareconomy.fooddrinkeurope.eu. Available at: http://circulareconomy.fooddrinkeurope.eu/farming/ [Accessed 10 Aug. 2017].

Fooddrinkeurope (2017). Manufacturing- Food and drink manufacturers. [online] Circulareconomy.fooddrinkeurope.eu. Available at: http://circulareconomy.fooddrinkeurope.eu/manufacturing/#1464449986170-8390b3f3-9451 [Accessed 10 Aug. 2017].

Fooddrinkeurope (2017). Policy recommendations for a resource efficient, circular economy. [online] Circulareconomy.fooddrinkeurope.eu. Available at: http://circulareconomy.fooddrinkeurope.eu/policy_recommendations/ [Accessed 10 Aug. 2017].

Ncausa (2017). 10 Steps from Seed to Cup. [online] Ncausa.org. Available at: http://www.ncausa.org/About-Coffee/10-Steps-from-Seed-to-Cup [Accessed 10 Aug. 2017].

 Jelle Steenbergen  Xiao-Er Kong & Wouter Noordijk

CIRCULAR
ECONOMY

In a circular economy, both renewable and non-renewable assets are carefully managed to maximize both their lifespan and potential for reuse. The system values restoration and regeneration, as viewed through a model like this.

Resources

Parts manufacturer

Farming/Collecting/Harvesting

Humans have interrupted nature’s natural cycles by throwing away nutrients. These components are often valuable for the biological and technical material cycles. A circular economy provides a system that “designs out waste” by creating products that can be remarketed, remanufactured, disassembled and repurposed.

Biosphere

Humans have interrupted nature’s natural cycles by throwing away nutrients. These components are often valuable for the biological and technical material cycles. A circular economy provides a system that “designs out waste” by creating products that can be remarketed, remanufactured, disassembled and repurposed.

Biogas - Anaerobic Digestion

Anaerobic digestion is a waste treatment process allowing the transformation of industrial, municipal and agricultural waste and residues into biogas and a digester residue called biomass.

Biogas is a CO2-neutral renewable biofuel that can be used for heat and power generation.

Biomass can be used as a nutrient-rich biological fertilizer and organic substrate for greenhouse agriculture.

Extraction of Biochemical Feedstock 

During the anaerobic digestion of biomass and industrial production processes, it is possible to generate supplementary energy in Biorefineries.

Cascades

The essence of a circular economy is found in the cascading system, which maximizes the value of biological and technical nutrients by keeping them in use through different applications as much as possible.

Parts Manufacturer

Parts manufacturers will strive to implement modularity, versatility, and adaptability in their components. In the current fast-paced economy, new production systems should aim to design flexible solutions that allow for change and improvements.

Product Manufacturer

Product manufacturers assemble the parts acquired from the parts manufacturers into the final product.

Service Provider

In a circular economy, manufacturers sell services (performance and value) rather than actual products, of which they retain the ownership.

Consumer and User
In a circular economy, final customers can be either users or consumers.

Users buy services and performances, like laundry washes, without degrading and/or owning the product, the washing machine. Consumers buy a product, like a cake at the supermarket, to consume and degrade it, in this case, to eat it.

With the implementation of a circular economy, the number of users in the durable goods sector is bound to increase since, as opposed to consumers, users would not degrade the product but just lease it for a set period of time.

Leakage Minimization: energy recovery
Non-recyclable materials that have permanently lost their usability are processed a final time to recover any residual energy. This can be done directly in the production plant or by sending the biomass to biorefineries.

Recycle

Recycling is the process of recovering materials for reuse. If value is lost during the process, it is called downcycling; if value is gained it is called upcycling.

Refurbish/Remanufacturer

Once the products or components have been identified as faulty, the manufacturer will collect the product for refurbishment or remanufacturing.

Refurbishment implies repairing the components of a product so that it can continue functioning.

Remanufacturing implies disassembling a product and recovering all its functioning parts to build a new product.

Reuse/Redistribute

Once a user has no more interest in the product and/or service, manufacturers will be able to collect products and lease them back, after an optional cosmetic cleaning, to other users.

Maintain/Prolong Product Lifetime

In a circular economy, manufacturers sell leasing contracts rather than actual products. Thanks to sensors and tags installed in the components and products, manufacturers will be able to track the performance of their products and provide maintenance at the right time, thus prolonging the lifespan of products.

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 Jelle Steenbergen  Xiao-Er Kong & Wouter Noordijk